Nikolaihof dates back almost 2000 years to Roman times and is the oldest wine estate in Austria – the first documented references to wine production here date back to 470 AD. Within the courtyard of the estate, the remains of the early Christian Agipitus Basilica can be found. Here a synod, convened by the Bishop Pilgrim of Passau, was held in 985 AD. The earlier Freihof was first referred to in 1075 as the central administrative headquarters of the Passau monastery of St Nikolai. For centuries it remained the political and ecclesiastical central point of the region. Today a combination of tradition and strict adherence of biodynamic principles lie at the heart of the winemaking philosophy and the Nikolaihof estate is certified with Demeter. The vineyards cover approximately 20 hectares, with plantings of Riesling, Grüner Veltliner, Weissburgunder, Malvasia, Neuburger and Chardonnay, though it is the Rieslings and Grüner Veltliners that have established the strongest following around the world. The biodynamic philosophy is evident from the vineyard through to the winery and no synthetic sprays, chemical fertilisers or weed killers are used. No genetically-modified enzymes or yeasts and no artificial concentration methods are employed. Naturally occurring yeasts carry out fermentation and winery practices are undertaken only on suitable days in the biodynamic calendar (bottling is only carried out on fruit days). The results of this meticulous approach are wines that express pure varietal character and a distinct sense of place.