Parellada, Macabeo and Xarel-lo are the dominant grapes used in the production of the Spanish sparkling wine Cava. Other grapes that are allowed in the blend are Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Garnacha, Monastrell and Subirat (loosely related to Malvasia). Single varietal cavas tend to be made by 100% Macabeo (which is also the preferred grape for Cava, typically forming at least 50% in multi-varietal blends).
Cava can be white or rosé, the latter is produced by adding in still red wine sourced from Pinot Noir, Garnacha, Monastrell or Trepat into the fermented sparkling wine prior to bottling.
Over 95% of Cava production originates from in the Penedès area in Catalonia. Aside this, a further eight different regions throughout Spain are also producing small quantities of Cava. The village of Sant Sadurní d'Anoia is home to many of Spain's largest production houses , led by Codorniu and Freixenet.
Bodegas Gramona are acknowledged, in Spain and beyond, to be the the finest of all Cava Houses (it has recently been voted among the Top of 100 Wineries of 2010 in the Wines & Spirits Magazine. The essence of their winemaking approach centres on extensive ageing and low levels of sugar, just like many finest Champagnes.
Only wines produced in the traditional method (méthode champenoise) are awarded the DO (Denomination Origin) Cava, those produced by other processes such as tank fermentation, may only be labelled vinos espumosos (sparkling wines).